Let’s talk learning difficulties. Types of dyslexia
Past and current researches have contributed to a better understanding and remediation of dyslexia; furthermore, these have enabled the classification of varied forms of dyslexia naming acquired dyslexia, visual dyslexia, auditory dyslexia, deep dyslexia, neglect, dyslexia, attentional dyslexia and developmental dyslexia.
Acquired dyslexia: this is a form of dyslexia that occurs as a direct result of brain damage usually in the left hemisphere of the brain through brain injuries, strokes or dementia.
Visual dyslexia or dyseidetic is characterised by the inability in printed symbols recognition, print reverses or mumbled up; difficulties with visual perception taxing on emotional reactions to towards what is read; hence, the individuals may give up making any effort or show aggression, frustration or anger.
Auditory dyslexia or dysphonetic dyslexia occurs when the central auditory processing is deficit. Here the difficulty in sorting out sounds in a word or organising strings of sounds into the correct sequence; inability to blend words into effective meanings affecting reading comprehension; failure to understand instructions, tongue twists and report oral information accurately. Individuals often find it difficult to connect letters or group of letters to their appropriate sounds.
Deep dyslexia, here individuals mostly make semantic errors when reading (for example may read father for dad); furthermore, they are unable to pronounce nonsense words and find it difficult to comprehend abstract word.
Surface dyslexia, this occurs when individuals are having trouble sounding out words when reading aloud words with irregular pronunciations.
Neglect dyslexia, it happens when individual fail to explicitly identify the initial part or the end of a word string. There is more chance of words’ substitution when reading.
Attentional dyslexia occurs when individuals are able to read whole words but fails to identify the words’ individual constituents. They show better performance in reading words or letters in isolation than in a sentence.
Developmental dyslexia, this is a form of dyslexia or specific reading difficulty where individuals with normal intelligence and sensory abilities express deficient reading skills. It is the most common form and it is hereditary
Delali Idrissou, Dyslexia Specialist MA Inclusive Education, MA FE Practitioner Postg SpLD Dyslexia - AMBDA Dip. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Dip. Adult Numeracy Member of PATOSS Member of Institute for Learning (MIfL) - QTLS [email protected]